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Hello everybody..!! Dentistry is a dynamic profession. Novel trends are being introduced in treating patients. Apart from the knowledge we obtain from our academic curriculum and day to day clinical experience, we need to update ourselves with all the latest research aimed at 'making a difference' in pateints' lives.

Dentist is someone who gets to the ROOT of the problem. He doesn’t have to ask what you had for lunch and flourishes in a DECAYing society. He only likes to see PLAQUE on the walls and seeks WISDOM through constant pursuit of the TOOTH and finds the profession very fulFILLING.

Our aim is to bring all dentists under one roof and provide a common platform for sharing news & views, opinions, discussions, knowledge and recent trends in our profession. Apart from this, other miscellaneous topics will be covered.

With this aim, we started “PROUD TO BE DENTIST” group in facebook on January 19th, 2011 and the response has been great so far. With close to 26000 members, we follow a daily schedule to update things in a systematic manner. To extend our reach, we launched this website on similar lines.

Hope you find our site useful & resourceful. Any suggestions for improvement are always welcome.

Proud To Be Dentist..!!

Message by Dr. Jayaprakash Narayan

Not too long ago, dental care was luxury in emerging economies. Not surprisingly, there were very few dentists. With rising prosperity, dental care has become a necessity. We now have many bright, young and well trained dental surgeons providing quality care. It’s time to look at options for universal care reaching every single person.

I congratulate "Proud To Be Dentist" team for fabulous work in brining all dentists on one platform, sharing experiences and promoting health care for all. Good luck to everybody.

Dr. Jayaprakash Narayan
Political reformer, Columnist
Former MLA, Govt. of AP,
Founder President, Loksatta.
  Crazy Dental Facts : Did You Know?

  Latest Dental News :

Liver Hormone Curbs Appetite For Sugar..!

15 January 2016: Apparently, it takes more than a strong will to keep those with a sweet tooth away from a sugar overload in their diet, new research from the University of Copenhagen suggests. Investigating genetic influences on individual food preferences, scientists have found that a hormone produced by the liver significantly affects appetite and intake of sugar.

“Based on these studies, and more, we can conclude that FGF21 decreases appetite and intake of sugar,” said co-author Stephanie von Holstein-Rathlou, a master’s student at the university’s Section for Metabolic Imaging and Liver Metabolism. Consequently, FGF21 is the first identified liver-derived hormone that controls appetite, the scientists stated.

Applied therapeutically, the findings may help alleviate the diabetes and obesity pandemic by decreasing people’s preference for sugar and reducing their sugar appetite and intake, they said. Following the World Health Organization’s guidelines on sugar intake, adults and children should reduce their consumption of free sugars to less than 10 per cent of their total energy intake. A further reduction to below 5 per cent or roughly 25 g (six teaspoons) per day would provide additional health benefits, the guidelines state.

The results of the study were published online ahead of print on 24 December in the Cell Metabolism journal in the article “FGF21 mediates endocrine control of simple sugar intake and sweet taste preference by the liver”. Courtesy:
New Anti-inflammatory Polymer To Eliminate Implant Failure Risk..!

10 January 2016: Although their success rate has been reported high, dental implants can fail owing to biological and technical issues over time. In many cases, the body’s inflammatory response causes rejection. Canadian research has now presented a new implant coating that helps disrupt this immune mechanism to prevent both the risk of implant failure and the need for anti-inflammatory drugs.

The disruptive new anti-inflammatory polymer was developed by Dr. Kyle Battiston, a postdoctoral fellow at the Faculty of Dentistry and a recent graduate from the Institute of Biomaterials and Biomedical Engineering at the University of Toronto. It was originally designed as a tissue-engineering scaffold that allows tissue engineers to grow cells successfully.

Battiston and his colleagues were able to coat implants with the biomaterial, which is derived from a family of polymers found to reduce inflammation, specifically when it interacts with white blood cells, and discovered that the coating calms the body’s immune response.

“We’ve learned this family of materials can retain its anti-inflammatory character while adapting diverse physical properties,” said Battiston. The material could thus be used for a wide variety of medical treatments. Courtesy:
'Sweet Points' In Glass Ionomer Cements..!

18 November 2015: While glass ionomers have been improved over time, they are still lacking in toughness and other requisite properties to be considered the material of choice for permanent restorations. This could soon change, according to scientists from England and Wales, who have recently gained new insights into how the material sets inside the tooth in real time.

Using intense beams of neutral subatomic particles from the Science and Technology Facilities Council’s neutron and muon source at the Rutherford Appleton Laboratory near Oxford, the researchers looked at the surface between the hard glass particles and surrounding polymer as the strength of the cement develops. Instead of the material hardening continuously, they found what they termed “sweet points”, at which the material suddenly regains elasticity as it approaches the toughness of the tissue and then hardens indefinitely.

Understanding these sweet points could have implications for creating more durable and longer-lasting fillings in the future, as well as for other industries that use cement, such as construction, and for testing toughness in other materials, the scientists said.

“Our work opens up the possibility of tailoring the strength of non-mercury cements by homing in on the special setting points, which we call ‘sweet points’, to make environmentally-friendly dental fillings that not only last longer but could prevent further tooth decay,” co-author Dr Gregory Chass from Queen Mary University of London’s School of Biological and Chemical Sciences added. Article reference: Tian, K. V. et al. Atomic and vibrational origins of mechanical toughness in bioactive cement during setting. Nat. Commun. 6:8631 doi: 10.1038/ncomms9631 (2015). Courtesy:
Tiny silica particles could be used to repair damaged teeth, research shows..!

18 September 2015: Researchers at the University of Birmingham have shown how the development of coated silica nanoparticles could be used in restorative treatment of sensitive teeth and preventing the onset of tooth decay.

Professor Zoe Pikramenou, from the School of Chemistry at the University of Birmingham, said, "These silica particles are available in a range of sizes, from nanometre to sub-micron, without altering their porous nature. It is this that makes them an ideal container for calcium based compounds to restore the teeth, and antibacterial compounds to protect them. All we needed to do was find the right way of coating them to get them to their target. We have found that different coatings does change the way that they interact with the tooth surface.

Previous attempts have used compounds of calcium fluoride, combinations of carbonate-hydroxypatite nanocrystals and bioactive glass, but all have seen limited success as they are liable to aggregate on delivery to the tubules. This prevents them from being able to enter the opening which is only 1 to 4 microns in width.

However, the Birmingham team turned to sub-micron silica particles that had been prepared with a surface coating to reduce the chance of aggregation. When observed using high definition SEM (Scanning Electron Microsopy), the researchers saw promising signs that suggested that the aggregation obstacle had been overcome. Reference: Sunil Claire, Anthony Damien Walmsley, Sophie Glinton, Hayley Floyd, Rachel Sammons, Zoe Pikramenou. The deposition and imaging of silica sub-micron particles in dentine. Journal of Dentistry, 2015; 43(10). Courtesy:
Stress in pregnancy may raise risk for dental caries in offspring..!

17 September 2015: Stress during pregnancy has been associated with a number of poor health implications for offspring, including low birthweight and increased risk of asthma and allergies. But for the first time, a new study (Dr. Wael Sabbah, of the Dental Institute at King's College London in the UK, and colleagues publish their findings in the American Journal of Public Health) suggests chronic stress in pregnancy may increase a child's risk for dental caries.

Children included in the study were aged 2-6 years, while their mothers were aged 30 and older. Biological markers of chronic stress - as assessed by markers of allostatic load (AL) - were analyzed during mothers' pregnancy. Specifically, the team assessed blood levels of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, triglycerides, glucose and C-reactive protein, as well as their blood pressure and waist circumference.

Compared with mothers who had no AL markers, those who had two or more were significantly more likely to have offspring with dental caries. Researchers conclude that "Chronic maternal stress as a potential risk factor is something we need to consider, in addition to the wider implications of maternal wellbeing, social, and psychological environment on dental health."

Reference: Maternal allostatic load, caretaking behaviors, and child dental caries experience: A cross-sectional evaluation of linked mother-child data from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, Wael Sabbah et al., American Journal of Public Health Courtesy:
Blood, Teeth Samples Accurately Predict Criminal's Age..!

16 September 2015: Forensic biomedical scientists from KU Leuven, Belgium, have developed a test to predict individuals' age on the basis of blood or teeth samples. This test may be particularly useful for the police, as it can help track down criminals or identify human remains.

Human tissues and organs change as we grow older. This aging process is regulated by our DNA. The KU Leuven researchers are the first to have successfully used this aging process, embedded in our DNA, to predict individuals' age with great accuracy. Bekaert and his colleagues were able to predict individuals' age on the basis of a set of four age-associated DNA methylation markers. The methylation levels of these markers can be used for highly accurate age predictions. The researchers were able to determine individuals' age with a margin of error of 3.75 years for blood samples and 4.86 years for teeth.

Reference: Bram Bekaert, Aubeline Kamalandua, Sara C Zapico, Wim Van de Voorde, Ronny Decorte. Improved age determination of blood and teeth samples using a selected set of DNA methylation markers. Epigenetics, 2015. Courtesy:
Poor Oral Hygiene May Increase Hypertension Risk..!

25 August 2015: A recent South Korean study has suggested that the likelihood of developing hypertension may be linked to poor oral hygiene habits. The analyses showed that frequent toothbrushing could be associated with a decreased prevalence of hypertension in individuals with and without periodontitis. Generally, participants with poor oral hygiene habits were found to have higher hypertension frequency.

According to the researchers, this suggests that periodontitis and hypertension may be linked in that inflammation may lead to blood pressure elevation, which would allow for the conclusion that oral hygiene may be considered an independent risk factor for hypertension. Hence, maintaining good oral health habits may prevent and control the condition.

Reference: The study, titled “Associations among oral hygiene behavior and hypertension prevalence and control”, was published in the July issue of the Journal of Periodontology. Courtesy:
Exclusive Breastfeeding Prevents Malocclusion..!

28 July 2015: A number of studies have demonstrated that breastfeeding has long-lasting health effects throughout life, including dental development and susceptibility to oral diseases. Now, research conducted at the University of Adelaide has provided new evidence that breastfeeding may protect against malocclusions in children.

The analysis found that predominant breastfeeding was associated with a lower prevalence of open bite, overjet, and moderate to severe malocclusion. Children who were exclusively breastfed from 3 to 6 months and up to 6 months had a 33 per cent and a 44 per cent lower prevalence of open bite, respectively, compared with children who were never breastfed. In addition, in comparison with the latter group, children in the breastfeeding group exhibited a 41 per cent and a 72 per cent lower prevalence of moderate to severe malocclusion, respectively.

The World Health Organization recommends exclusive breastfeeding of infants up to 6 months of age. However, today only 38 per cent of infants are exclusively breastfed globally. Reference: Exclusive breastfeeding and risk of dental malocclusion - July issue of Pediatrics journal. Courtesy:
'Insufficient Evidence' That Natural Sweetener Xylitol Prevents Tooth Decay..!

29 May 2015: The evidence available on the effects of xylitol - a natural sugar substitute used to sweeten products such as candy, chewing gum and toothpaste - is insufficient to prove it prevents tooth decay in children and adults according to a new Cochrane review by researchers at the University of Manchester in the UK.

Xylitol is a widely promoted and popular sugar substitute that is already known to cause less damage to teeth than sugar. From the pooled analysis of the two studies, the authors found low-quality evidence that tooth decay was 13% lower in the children who used a fluoride toothpaste containing xylitol for 3 years, compared with counterparts who used a fluoride-only toothpaste.

Reference: Xylitol-containing products for preventing dental caries in children and adults, Philip Riley, et al., Cochrane Database Syst Rev, doi:10.1002/14651858.CD010743.pub2, published online 26 March 2015. Courtesy:
Beyond Tooth Decay: Why Good Dental Hygiene Is Important..!

26 May 2015: Most of us are aware that poor dental hygiene can lead to tooth decay, gum disease and bad breath - but not brushing your teeth could also have consequences for more serious illnesses.

Alzheimer's disease: In 2010, researchers from New York University (NYU) concluded that there is a link between gum inflammation and Alzheimer's disease, after reviewing 20 years of data on the association. Analysis showed that a bacterium - Porphyromonas gingivalis - was present in the Alzheimer's brain samples but not in the samples from the brains of people who did not have Alzheimer's. What was interesting was that P. gingivalis is usually associated with chronic gum disease.

Pancreatic cancer: A research team from Harvard School of Public Health in Boston, MA, were the first to report strong evidence on a link between gum disease and pancreatic cancer, back in 2007. Examining data on gum disease from the Health Professionals Follow-Up Study, which involved a cohort of more than 51,000 men and began collecting data in 1986, the Harvard researchers found that men with a history of gum disease had a 64% increased risk of pancreatic cancer compared with men who had never had gum disease.

Heart disease: In 2008, MNT reported on research from joint teams at the University of Bristol in the UK and the Royal College of Surgeons in Dublin, Ireland, who found that people with bleeding gums from poor dental hygiene could be increasing their risk of heart disease. The researchers found that heart disease risk increased because - in people who have bleeding gums - bacteria (Streptococcus gordonii and Streptococcus sanguinis) from the mouth is able to enter the bloodstream and stick to platelets, which can then form blood clots, interrupting the flow of blood to the heart and triggering a heart attack.

The American Dental Hygienists' Association (ADHA) recommend that we should brush for 2 minutes, twice daily. The ADHA guidelines also stress the importance of flossing daily and rinsing with mouthwash. Courtesy:
Natural Plant Chemicals Could Help Fight Tooth Decay..!

20 May 2015: A study by researchers at the University of Edinburgh has shown that a natural chemical related to those found in liquorice root could help prevent tooth decay. The plant product acts against harmful mouth bacteria and could improve oral health if added to oral care products by helping to prevent the build-up of plaque, the researchers said.

The biological compound, which is similar to chemicals found in liquorice root, is known as trans-chalcone. The British study found that it blocks the action of a key enzyme that allows bacteria to thrive in oral cavities.

The researchers found that blocking the activity of the enzyme prevents bacteria Streptococcus mutans forming a protective biological layer (a biofilm) around themselves. Plaque is formed when bacteria attach themselves to teeth and construct biofilms. Preventing the assembly of these protective layers would help stop bacteria forming plaque, the research team said.

“We were delighted to observe that trans-chalcone inhibited Sortase A in a test tube and stopped Streptococcus mutans biofilm formation. We are expanding our study to include similar natural products and investigate if they can be incorporated into consumer products,” Campopiano from the University of Edinburgh’s School of Chemistry, who led the study said.

The study, titled “Molecular basis of Streptococcus mutans Sortase A inhibition by the flavonoid natural product trans-chalcone”, was published online in the Chemical Communications journal on 18 May. Courtesy:
Durable Biomaterial Potentially Reduces Tooth Sensitivity..!

25 January 2015: Chun-Pin Lin, a professor of dentistry at National Taiwan University, and colleagues report how they developed the new material, which they tested on dogs, in the journal ACS Nano. In their paper, Prof. Lin and his team describe how they made and tested a reliable, fast-acting biocompatible material containing the main elements found in teeth: calcium and phosphorous.

Applied to teeth in the form of a paste, the biomaterial seals the exposed dentinal tubules to produce what the team describes as a "biomimetic crystalline dentin barrier." To make the material, the team produced a silica-based template containing nano-sized calcium carbonate particles and mixed it with phosphoric acid (H3PO4). This enabled calcium and phosphate ions to work their way deep into the dentinal tubules and crystallize into various forms of calcium phosphate.

Tests on the dogs' teeth revealed "significant crystal growth" and "no pulp irritation after 70 days," note the authors. They conclude that the new biomaterial "holds great promise for treating exposed dentin by growing biomimetic crystals within dentinal tubules," and may serve "as both a catalyst and carrier in the repair or regeneration of dental hard tissue."

A 2008 survey conducted by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) found that over 26% of adults aged 18-64 in the US had experienced toothache or sensitive teeth in the preceding 6 months. Women were more affected than men, and the 18-34 group was more affected than the 55-64 group.

Reference: A Mesoporous Silica Biomaterial for Dental Biomimetic Crystallization, Yu-Chih Chiang, et al., ACS Nano, doi:10.1021/nn5053487. Source: Paddock, C. (2015, January 8). "Durable biomaterial potentially reduces tooth sensitivity." Medical News Today. Retrieved from
Coated Tissue Scaffolds Help the Body Grow New Bone to Repair Injuries or Congenital Defects..!

16 November 2014: MIT chemical engineers have devised a new implantable tissue scaffold coated with bone growth factors that are released slowly over a few weeks. When applied to bone injuries or defects, this coated scaffold induces the body to rapidly form new bone that looks and behaves just like the original tissue.

Image on top left is a scanning electron micrograph of a porous, nanostructured poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) membrane. The membrane is coated with a polyelectrolyte (PEM) multilayer coating that releases growth factors to promote bone repair (Credit: Image courtesy of Nasim Hyder and Nisarg J. Shah).

Two of the most important bone growth factors are platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) and bone morphogeneticprotein 2 (BMP-2). As part of the natural wound-healing cascade, PDGF is one of the first factors released immediately following a bone injury, such as a fracture. After PDGF appears, other factors, including BMP-2, help to create the right environment for bone regeneration by recruiting cells that can produce bone and forming a supportive structure, including blood vessels.

To achieve this, the MIT team created a very thin, porous scaffold sheet coated with layers of PDGF and BMP. Using a technique called layer-by-layer assembly, they first coated the sheet with about 40 layers of BMP-2; on top of that are another 40 layers of PDGF. This allowed PDGF to be released more quickly, along with a more sustained BMP-2 release, mimicking aspects of natural healing. The scaffold sheet is about 0.1 millimeter thick; once the growth-factor coatings are applied, scaffolds can be cut from the sheet on demand, and in the appropriate size for implantation into a bone injury or defect.

The researchers tested the scaffold in rats with a skull defect large enough - 8 millimeters in diameter - that it could not heal on its own. After the scaffold was implanted, growth factors were released at different rates. PDGF, released during the first few days after implantation, helped initiate the wound-healing cascade and mobilize different precursor cells to the site of the wound. These cells are responsible for forming new tissue, including blood vessels, supportive vascular structures, and bone. Courtesy:
Ozone nano-bubble water: Potential treatment for severe gum infections..!

12 October 2014: A powerful new antiseptic agent, called ozone nano-bubble water, holds promise for the treatment of periodontitis, or severe gum infections, according to new research published in the journal Science and Technology of Advanced Materials.

The study, by Shinichi Arakawa and colleagues at Tokyo Medical and Dental University and Japans National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, evaluated the bactericidal activities of ozone nano-bubble water, also known as NBW3, against the two main bacterial agents that cause periodontitis as well as its toxicity to human oral tissue cells. Their results showed that NBW3 can kill periodontal pathogens within 30 seconds of exposure, yet has only a minor impact on the viability of oral tissue cells after 24 hours of exposure.

Ozone (O3), which has strong antimicrobial activity against bacteria, fungi, protozoa and viruses, does not induce microbial resistance. Aqueous ozone is highly biocompatible with oral tissue cells. However, ozonated water must be used within the first 5 to 10 minutes after production to assure its potency. To address this obstacle, co-author M. Takahashi and K. Chiba developed a patented procedure to produce ozone nano-bubble water. NBW3 retains its oxidation ability for more than six months if protected from exposure to ultraviolet rays. Its high stability allows for the bottling and use of NBW3 as a disinfectant solution.

Image on top left shows changes in the microstructure of bacterial cells exposed to NBW3 were assessed using a transmission electron micrograph (TEM). In Escherichia coli cells exposed to NBW3, disruption of the cell wall and the presence of numerous membrane vesicles projecting from the cell wall were observed (A). Moreover, coagulated materials were seen inside the treated cells, in particular, close to the cell membrane (B). However, there was no apparent lysis or gross leakage of cellular cytoplasmic contents from cells. In order to obtain a fuller understanding of the antibacterial mechanism of NBW3, further research is needed to determine how NBW3 damages the cellular structure and how this impacts cellular function.

Journal Reference: Sae Hayakumo, Shinichi Arakawa, Masayoshi Takahashi, Keiko Kondo, Yoshihiro Mano, Yuichi Izumi. Effects of ozone nano-bubble water on periodontopathic bacteria and oral cells -in vitrostudies. Science and Technology of Advanced Materials, 2014; 15 (5): 055003 DOI: 10.1088/1468-6996/15/5/055003. Courtesy:
No Consensus Among Dental Associations and Toothpaste Companies On What Is The Easiest, Effective & Safest Way To Brush..!

8 August 2014: Advice on how we should brush our teeth from dental associations and toothpaste companies is 'unacceptably inconsistent', finds new University College London (UCL) research. The researchers found no clear consensus between the various sources, and a 'worrying' lack of agreement between advice from dental associations compared with dental textbooks.

The study, published in the British Dental Journal, looked at the brushing advice given by dental associations across ten countries, toothpaste and toothbrush companies and in dental textbooks. They found a wide range of recommendations on what brushing method to use, how often to brush and for how long. "The public needs to have sound information on the best method to brush their teeth," says Aubrey Sheiham, Emeritus Professor of Dental Public Health (UCL Epidemiology & Public Health), senior author of the study. "If people hear one thing from a dental association, another from a toothbrush company and something else from their dentist, no wonder they are confused about how to brush. In this study we found an unacceptably inconsistent array of advice from different sources.

The most commonly-recommended technique involves gently jiggling the brush back and forth in small motions, with the intention of shaking loose any food particles, plaque and bacteria. However, no large-scale studies have ever shown this method to be any more effective than basic scrubbing. "Brush gently with a simple horizontal scrubbing motion, with the brush at a forty-five degree angle to get to the dental plaque," Professor Sheiham advises. "To avoid brushing too hard, hold the brush with a pencil grip rather than a fist. This simple method is perfectly effective at keeping your gums healthy. "There is little point in brushing after eating sweets or sugary drinks to prevent tooth decay. It takes bacteria from food about two minutes to start producing acid, so if you brush your teeth a few minutes after eating sugary foods, the acid will have damaged the enamel."

The conflicting messages given by different organisations highlight the need for research into how effective different brushing methods are. At present, the expert advice in the guidelines, 'The scientific basis of dental health education', recommend a simple scrubbing technique as it is easy to learn and there is no evidence to justify a more complicated method. "What I feel we need is better research into what the easiest to learn, most effective and safest way to brush is. The current situation where not just individual dentists, but different dental organisations worldwide are all issuing different brushing guidelines isn't just confusing -- it's undermining faith and trust in the profession as a whole.

For something most people do twice a day, you would expect dentists to send a clearer, more unified message to their patients on how to brush their teeth." says lead author Dr John Wainwright, who carried out the study at UCL and is now a practising dentist. Journal reference: J. Wainwright, A. Sheiham. An analysis of methods of toothbrushing recommended by dental associations, toothpaste and toothbrush companies and in dental texts. BDJ, 2014; 217 (3): E5 DOI: 10.1038/sj.bdj.2014.651. With inputs from
Rapid HIV Testing In Dental Setup To Help Reduce Spread Of HIV..!

20 July 2014: More than 80 per cent of oral health patients are willing to receive rapid HIV-testing in dental settings, which could help reduce the spread of the HIV according to a groundbreaking study revealed today at a Sydney University HIV Testing Symposium.

Rapid HIV testing is a screening test that swiftly detects the presence of HIV antibodies in a human body by testing blood or oral fluids. It can be done as a simple finger prick or a saliva swab, and results can be made available within 20 minutes.

"Dentists are well placed to offer rapid HIV testing because they're located throughout the community, have ongoing relationships with their patients, and have the necessary training and expertise to recognise systemic diseases that have oral manifestations, such as HIV/AIDS," says the study's lead author, Dr Anthony Santella of the University of Sydney. The new research finding has important policy implications, according to Dr Santella: "If rapid HIV testing was widely available in dental settings it could help to reduce the spread of the virus by informing people who aren't aware that they are HIV-positive.

Sixty per cent of Australians see their dentist once in 12 months with 80 per cent seeing a dentist in the course of 2 years. Ten to 20 per cent of people living with HIV are undiagnosed and therefore run the risk of spreading the virus unknowingly. The Australian Government's HIV Strategy aims to reduce the sexual transmission of HIV by 50 per cent by 2015, as a key step towards a 2020 elimination target. With inputs from
Dialysis Patients With Poor Oral Health Have A Higher Mortality Risk..!

17 July 2014: Better oral hygiene could improve survival rates in dialysis patients, a Swedish study has found. The research findings corroborate a previous study that found a significant association between moderate to severe periodontal disease and cardiovascular mortality in this patient group.

“Our general finding was that dialysis patients who had either no teeth or bad teeth had a higher risk of all-cause mortality than those who did not, and the adjusted risk of cardiovascular mortality followed a similar pattern,” stated Dr Giovanni Strippoli, Senior Vice-President of Scientific Affairs and Chairman of the Diaverum Academy, who led the study.

The researchers found that after 22 months 650 participants had died in total, 325 of whom had died from a cardiovascular event. Almost a quarter of the subjects had no teeth and their hazard ratio for all-cause mortality was 1.27 after adjustment for multiple potential confounders. Those with more than 14 decayed, missing or filled teeth had a hazard ratio for all-cause mortality of 1.46. Mortality rates were lower in patients who spent a minimum of 2 minutes a day on oral hygiene (0.81), changed their toothbrush at least every three months (0.79) and brushed their teeth (0.74). Those who flossed too had a mortality rate of 0.49.

Patients with good dental hygiene had better overall survival, the researchers concluded. The research was recently presented at the 51st congress of the European Renal Association—European Dialysis and Transplant Association in Amsterdam. With inputs from Dental-Trubune
Saliva As Diagnostic Indicator In Children..!

14 July 2014: A new study has suggested that evaluating specific salivary biomarker concentrations could be a useful alternative to repeated blood sampling to determine the risk of metabolic diseases in obese children.

In obese children, salivary insulin and leptin levels were almost three times higher, and salivary C-reactive protein was almost six times higher compared with normal weight children. In addition, adiponectin was about 30 percent lower in the obese group. According to the researchers, elevated plasma insulin is characteristic of Type 2 diabetes and a number of human studies have associated high levels of C-reactive protein with the disease. Thus, they suggested that screening saliva could help identify children at risk of developing Type 2 diabetes.

The children in this study were participants of the Kuwait Healthy Life Study, a longitudinal cohort investigation of more than 8,000 children that is being conducted in partnership with the Forsyth Institute, an independent research institute in the U.S. specializing in oral health and related conditions, which conducted the study. Data and saliva samples were collected during 182 visits to 39 Kuwaiti schools between October 2011 and May 2012.

The study, titled "Metabolic Disease Risk in Children by Salivary Biomarker Analysis," was published online on June 10 in the PLOS ONE journal. Courtesy: Dental-Trubune
Amalgam Recycling Project Gets Underway In Brazil..!

10 July 2014: Together with the Universidade Federal Fluminense, one of the largest universities in Brazil, Dental Recycling International (DRI), a dental waste management company, has initiated a pilot project that aims to promote environmentally friendly disposal of dental amalgam in Brazil.

DRI announced that it will be installing amalgam separators at the university's Faculty of Dentistry and providing a number of chairside amalgam recycling kits. "This is the first initiative in Brazil to install mercury filters in all dental equipment at a dental school and the experience may serve as an example to other public and private institutions," said Dr. Claudio Fernandes, Director of the Center for Advancement in Dental Standards at the university.

DRI President and CEO Marc M. Sussman said, "It is remarkable to have the opportunity to work in a country with the largest number of practicing dentists. DRI's presence in Brazil, now and in the future, will aid the country's commitment to sustainable development, as we seek to promote environmental stewardship in the practice of dentistry." Courtesy: Dental-Trubune
Fastest Antibiotic Finder Developed..!

07 July 2014: Researchers at the BITS Pilani Hyderabad campus have developed a new low-cost ultra-rapid, portable device to test antibiotic sensitivity of human urinary pathogens that would curb the growing menace of antibiotic resistance.

Dr. Suman Kapur, who developed this technology, described it as “the fastest antibiotic finder available till date”. This technology, developed with the funding received from NPMASS- DRDO is expected to obliterate the empirical use of antibiotics and thus help in fighting the growing microbial resistance to antibiotics. She said the device reliability as well as the cost was comparable to the conventional assays for antibiotic sensitivity of pathogens. This could be used in any setting - be it a doctor’s clinic, lab or hospital- to test antibiotic sensitivity of pathogens found in human biological fluids and tissue scrapings.

The novel device which comes with a ready-to-use kit could provide results in a couple of hours as against the normal wait of 2-3 days for a sample to be cultured and tested in any lab. The technology developed by the BITS Pilani Hyderabad campus researchers was recently transferred to an incubatee company named “Xcellence in Bio Innovation and Technologies Pvt Ltd for commercial scale production. Courtesy: The Hindu
Human Tongue Has A Sixth Taste Sense..!

01 July 2014: In addition to recognizing sweet, sour, salty, savory (umami), and bitter tastes, our tongue has a sixth taste sense, the "sense of carbs", that allows us to perceive carbohydrates — the nutrients that break down into sugar and form the main source of energy.

The "sense of carbs" also triggers the pleasure centre of the brain and could explain why people often find diet foods unsatisfying, a research shows. "The mouth is a more capable sensory organ than we currently appreciate, able to distinguish carbohydrates from artificial sweeteners when both taste identical," said Nicholas Gant from University of Auckland in New Zealand.

This 'sixth taste sense' for carbohydrate is likely one of many additional food qualities that are detectable by receptors in the mouth. The study is set to appear in a forthcoming issue of the journal Appetite. Courtesy: TOI
New Device To Treat Caries With Electric Remineralisation..!

22 June 2014: British researchers have developed a device that takes the pain out of tooth decay treatment by electrically reversing the process to help teeth remineralise. The technique, known as Electrically Accelerated and Enhanced Remineralisation (EAER), could be brought to market within three years.

With 2.3 billion sufferers annually, dental caries is one of the most common preventable diseases globally. Dentists normally treat established caries in a tooth by drilling to remove the decay and filling the tooth with a material, such as amalgam or composite resin. Researchers at Reminova, a spin-out company of King’s College London, aim to rebuild the tooth and heal it by accelerating the natural process by which calcium and phosphate minerals re-enter the tooth to repair.

The two-step method developed by Reminova first prepares the damaged part of the outer enamel layer of the tooth, then uses a tiny electric current to push minerals into the tooth to repair the damaged site. The defect is remineralised in a painless process that requires no drills, injections or filling materials. Electric currents are already used by dentists to check the pulp or nerve of a tooth. The new device uses a current that is far smaller than that currently used on patients and cannot be felt by the patient. Courtesy: dental-tribune
Survey Finds Increased Optimism About The Future In UK Dental Professionals..!

1 June 2014: The results of a recently published online survey indicate that more dental professionals practising in the UK are optimistic rather than pessimistic about the future of their profession over the next two years. Many respondents were especially optimistic about the areas of learning and development. The survey involved 3,611 dentists (37 per cent) and other dental care professionals, with dental nurses (46 per cent) representing the largest group. It was conducted by Enventure Research, an independent research agency, on behalf of the GDC in November and December 2013 and in January and February 2014.

In order to practise in the UK, all dental professionals are required to be registered with the General Dental Council (GDC), which regulates all practising dental professionals in the UK. Currently, there are approximately 102,800 dental professionals registered with the GDC. Of these, 62,500 are dental care professionals and 40,300 are dentists. Similar to the 2012 results, about two in five respondents (37 per cent) indicated that they were optimistic about the future. However, almost a third of dental professionals (31 per cent) stated that they were rather pessimistic.

The survey also found that dental care professionals (44 per cent) were generally more optimistic about the future than dentists (25 per cent) were. Moreover, male respondents (47 per cent) were more pessimistic compared with female respondents (25 per cent). In particular, the respondents felt most optimistic about learning and development (73 per cent) and advances in technology (45 per cent). With regard to areas of pessimism, the majority of respondents, and dentists in particular, said that they were rather pessimistic about changes in regulation (62 per cent) and financial issues (61 per cent). The full report can be accessed on the GDC website. Courtesy: dental-tribune
Red Wine Could Slow Down Oral Bacterial Growth..!

20 May 2014: Red wine, as well as grape seed extract, could potentially help prevent cavities, new research has found. The findings could lead to the development of natural products that prevent dental diseases with fewer side-effects.

Cavities, periodontal disease and tooth loss affect an estimated 60 to 90 per cent of the global population. Such oral health problems are preceded by the formation of biofilms by certain bacteria in the mouth. Research has suggested that polyphenols, grape seed extract and wine can slow down the bacterial growth. Researchers at the Institute of Food Science Research in Madrid and the University of Zurich tested the antimicrobial effects of red wine and its inherent components on oral microbiota.

The study, titled “Red wine and oenological extracts display antimicrobial effects in an oral bacteria biofilm model”, was published online in the Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. For their study, the researchers used a five-species biofilm model of the supragingival plaque containing Actinomyces oris, Fusobacterium nucleatum, Streptococcus oralis, Streptococcus mutans and Veillonella dispar. Microbiological analysis of the biofilms after the application of red wine, de-alcoholised red wine, and red wine extract solutions with and without grape seed and inactive dry yeast extracts found that the solutions containing grape seed extract were effective against F. nucleatum, S. oralis and A. oris. Furthermore, red wine and de-alcoholised wine had an antimicrobial effect against F. nucleatum and S. oralis. Courtesy: dental-tribune
Dental Abscess Possibly Implicated in Deaths of Prehistoric Man..!

11 April 2014: Spare a thought for the unknown adult mummified in a Theban necropolis more than 2,500 years ago. Not only did he suffer the most excruciating, possibly life-threatening dental abscess, but the embalmer botched the afterlife preparation, leaving bits of brain in his skull as well as a broken section of the spatula he was using to remove it.

Experts now know far more about them because of new "electronic excavations" using the latest generation of medical CT scanners. CT scanners help see inside embalmed bodies of mummies.

They also found five dental abscess which would have caused significant discomfort and may have been a cause of death because if the infection had got in to his bloodstream, it could have caused septicaemia. (excerpts from an article titled "CT scanners help see inside embalmed bodies of mummies", from THE HINDU)
WORLD ORAL HEALTH DAY - March 20th, 2014..!

20 March 2014: Theme: Celebrating Healthy Smiles. World Oral Health Day (WOHD) is an international day organized by FDI to celebrate the benefits of a healthy mouth and to promote worldwide awareness of the issues around oral health and the importance of looking after oral hygiene to everyone old and young.

The aim of WOHD is to raise awareness and encourage individuals, families, communities and governments to take action and help reduce the global burden of oral disease.

As a dentist, as a health care provider, greater responsibilities are bestowed on us. Let's take the responsibility of promoting awareness among public regarding "Importance of Oral Hygiene & it's Impact on General Health" and reinforce the age old saying "ORAL HEALTH = OVERALL HEALTH"

On the occasion of WORLD ORAL HEALTH DAY, let's celebrate healthy smiles. Let's Eat, Laugh, Kiss, Brush, Whistle, Rinse, for a HEALTHY MOUTH
Neurostimulation: Gingival Implant Helps Reduce Cluster Headache..!

09 March 2014: Cluster headache is one of the most severe forms of headache. It is usually unilateral and occurs mostly around the eye or in the temple. Attacks last up to several hours. A new mini-implant, which is inserted into the gingival tissue and activated with a remote control, can help those affected to obtain fast and lasting relief.

A new type of cluster headache treatment is the stimulation of the sphenopalatine ganglion (SPG). This bundle of nerves is located behind the nose and known to play a pivotal role in severe headaches. The ATI Neurostimulation System stimulates the SPG in order to break the pain cycle.

The neurostimulator, which is the size of an almond, is inserted through a small incision in the gingiva and programmed by the physician. As cluster headache occurs unilaterally, the implant is inserted on the relevant side. The surgery is performed under general anaesthetic and takes about an hour. The minimally invasive procedure leaves no visible scars. Usually, the patient remains in hospital for one night after surgery. Approximately four weeks later, an individual adaptation of the ATI neurostimulator is performed and fine tuning follows within the next one to three months.

The patient can control his or her therapy independently via a remote control. When a cluster attack occurs, he or she holds the device against the cheek to activate the implant. This stimulates the SPG and abates the attack. In many patients, the frequency of attacks decreases permanently. Courtesy:
Surgeons Find Teeth In Head Tumor..!

05 March 2014: Brain surgeons in the U.S. have found multiple fully formed teeth inside a tumor mass that was growing in the center of the brain of a 4-month-old child. The boy was initially admitted to a clinic in Baltimore after a routine pediatric visit owing to an increasing head circumference.

According to the case report, which was published online on Feb. 27 in the New England Journal of Medicine, the child underwent MRI of the brain after admission to the Johns Hopkins Children's Center, which revealed a mass (4.1 cm × 4.0 cm × 3.5 cm) close to the hypophysis. The doctors also identified structures near the mass similar to those of teeth in the mandible.

Upon surgical removal of the tumor, the surgeons found a number of teeth inside the mass, which was later identified as an adamantinomatous craniopharyngioma on pathological examination. Such slow-growing tumors arise from Rathke's pouch, an embryonic precursor to the anterior pituitary, and consist of stratified squamous epithelium and wet keratin, and may be cystic. The cysts are filled with viscous yellow fluid containing cholesterol crystals. The doctors explained that histologically adamantinomatous craniopharyngiomas closely resemble some odontogenic tumors.

The surgery was performed about a year ago. According to the case report, since then the patient has required shunting for bilateral subdural hygromas, and received thyroid and adrenal hormone-replacement therapy. However, he is making good developmental progress and undergoes MRI regularly, the doctors said. Courtesy:
Hop Bracts To Combat Dental Caries and Periodontal Disease..!

01 March 2014: According to a recently published study from Japan, parts of hops that are not used in the production of beer contain substances that could be beneficial to oral health. The study showed that hop bracts, which are usually discarded, could be used to combat dental cavities and periodontal disease.

Using a novel sequential chromatographic technique, pharmacists at the University of Tokyo investigated the compounds of hop bracts for their health effects. The bracts also contained substantial amounts of proanthocyanidins, which have antioxidant properties and are found in apples, cinnamon and red wine too, and are thought to promote health.

The study, titled “Comprehensive separation and structural analyses of polyphenols and related compounds from bracts of hops (Humulus lupulus L.)”, was published on 18 February in the Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry ahead of print. It was conducted in collaboration with Asahi Group Holdings, a Japanese brewery and soft drink group. Courtesy:
Motivational Health Coaching Empowers Diabetic Patients, Improves Dental Health..!

27 February 2014: By means of so-called health coaching, researchers at the University of Copenhagen have helped a large group of diabetics to markedly improve their oral health. The patients assume responsibility for their own bodies and boost their self-efficacy through motivational health coaching, taking a different approach to conventional health campaigns and one-way communication.

Diabetics are at a higher risk of suffering oral health problems. Not just the most serious problems like periodontitis and caries, but also other issues such as dry mouth, fungal infections and poor wound healing.

The research findings have just been published in Clinical Oral Investigations. Courtesy:,
Byproducts Of Bacteria Incite Oral Cancer Growth, Study Shows..!

25 February 2014: Researchers from Case Western Reserve University have discovered how byproducts in the form of small fatty acids from two bacteria prevalent in gum disease incite the growth of deadly Kaposi's sarcoma-related (KS) lesions and tumors in the mouth.

High levels of these bacteria are found in the saliva of people with periodontal disease, and at lower levels in those with good oral health -- further evidence of the link between oral and overall physical health. The discovery could lead to early saliva testing for the bacteria, which, if found, could be treated and monitored for signs of cancer and before it develops into a malignancy, the researchers say.

The discovery is described in The Journal of Virology article, "Short Chain Fatty Acids from Periodontal Pathogens Suppress HDACs, EZH2, and SUV39H1 to Promote Kaposi's Sarcoma-Associated Herpesvirus Replication."

The research focuses on how the bacteria, Porphyromonas gingivalis (Pg) and Fusobacterium nucleatum (Fn), which are associated with gum disease, contribute to cancer formation. Courtesy:,
Biological Dark Matter - Unveiled..!

20 February 2014: Scientists have pieced together sections of DNA from 12 individual cells to sequence the genome of a bacterium known to live in healthy human mouths. WWith this new data about a part of the body considered "biological dark matter," the researchers were able to reinforce a theory that genes in a closely related bacterium could be culprits in its ability to cause severe gum disease.

The findings of this study contribute to the Human Microbiome Project. Why the dark matter reference? More than 60 percent of bacteria in the human mouth refuse to grow in a laboratory dish, meaning they have never been classified, named or studied. The newly sequenced bacterium, Tannerella BU063, is among those that to date have not successfully been grown in culture -- and its genome is identified as "most wanted" by the Human Microbiome Project.

Periodontitis results when extensive inflammation or infection of the gums spreads beyond the gums to damage structures that support the teeth, including bone. Pockets that form between the gums and teeth are filled with different kinds of bacteria. Treatment typically involves deep cleaning or surgery to remove these infected pockets. Because multiple bacteria are associated with the disease, antibiotics have not been considered effective for treatment.

Though many bacteria in these pockets have been collected and at least partially identified, their characteristics remain a mystery. Courtesy:,
Cavities Are Contagious..!

10 February 2014: Dental caries, commonly known as tooth decay, is the single most common chronic childhood disease. In fact, it is an infectious disease. Mothers with cavities can transmit caries-producing oral bacteria to their babies when they clean pacifiers by sticking them in their own mouths or by sharing spoons.

According to Liliana Rozo, D.D.S., assistant profesor, University of Louisville School of Dentistry, tooth decay can have a detrimental effect on a child's quality of life, performance in school and success in life. The disease can cause pain, inability to chew food well, embarrassment about discolored or damaged teeth, and distraction from play and learning.

The American Academy of Pediatric Dentistry (AAPD) encourages parents to find a dental home for their baby as soon as the child's first tooth erupts. Regular visits to a pediatric dentist will help parents become familiar with their child's dental and oral health milestones. They'll inform parents about teething, proper oral hygiene habits, normal tooth development, and trauma prevention. Nutritional counseling also will be a part of the discussion.

Often, Rozo said, parents do not make the connection between oral health and overall health, but they are related. The mouth is an open door for many microbial infections to enter the bloodstream. Poor oral health may be a risk factor for systemic disease. Oral health manifestations, such as bleeding or dry mouth can indicate the presence of a systemic disease or exacerbate the effects of an existing disease such as diabetes and heart disease. Courtesy:,
Triclosan Boosts Antibacterial Efficacy of Toothpaste..!

25 January 2014: Regular use of fluoride toothpaste containing triclosan, an antibacterial agent, and a copolymer, which helps prevent the triclosan from being washed away by saliva, reduces plaque, gingivitis, and bleeding gums and slightly reduces tooth decay compared to fluoride toothpaste without those ingredients, finds a new review in The Cochrane Library.

A team from the Cochrane Oral Health Group reviewed 30 published studies of toothpastes containing triclosan and copolymer. Their analysis of the combined data found a 22 percent reduction in plaque, a 22 percent reduction in gingivitis, a 48 percent reduction in bleeding gums, and a 5 percent reduction in tooth decay (cavities) compared to toothpaste with fluoride alone.

Tooth decay and gingivitis are the main causes of tooth loss. Both are caused by plaque, the film of bacteria that builds up on teeth, and if left untreated, can lead to periodontitis, a more serious gum disease that can cause pain and loose teeth. Courtesy:,
Online Forum - Proud To Be Dentist (PTBD) Celebrates Its 3rd Anniversary..!

19 January 2014: Online forum Proud To Be Dentist (PTBD) celebrates its 3rd anniversary today. The project began on January 19th, 2011 with an aim to create a platform for all the dentists to discuss various aspects pertaining to dentistry including general issues.

Firmly believing in the quote of Aristotle, "Pleasure in the job puts perfection in the work", the online forum has been working for a better tomorrow.

Information is updated through website, facebook and whatsapp. A daily schedule is followed for posting information to maintain clarity and to ensure efficient & effective functioning. Regular updates are done 24*7 every alternate week.

"It's been quite challenging to maintain such a forum for the past few years (courtesy: support and best wishes of fellow members). We are proud to say that Online Project - Proud To Be Dentist is a classic example of COMMITMENT + CONSISTENCY. We work committed with consistency as DENTISTRY is our PASSION. And the overwhelming response which we get from YOU just REFLECTS this. Thank you for you never ending support and motivation" says administrator.
GRHL3 Implicated In Cleft Lip & Palate..!!

14 January 2014: An international team led by researchers from the Karolinska Institutet in Stockholm has identified a new gene related to Van der Woude syndrome (VWS), the most common syndrome with cleft lip and palate. The study may lead the way to improved genetic diagnostics of individuals and families with orofacial clefts.

Cleft lip and palate is one of the most common birth defects and can be found in the form of cleft lip or cleft palate alone, or cleft lip and palate together. They may occur together with other malformations, forming a syndrome. There are more than 350 syndromes with clefts, of which VWS is the most common. Approximately 70 per cent of the individuals with VWS have a mutation in a gene called interferon regulatory factor 6 (IRF6).

Now, collaborating researchers from Sweden, the USA, Finland and Israel have found a second gene related to VWS. The research began with a genetic linkage study of a large family from Finland. The family had been diagnosed with VWS, although no IRF6 mutations had been found. By comparing the DNA of affected individuals with DNA from healthy family members, the researchers identified another gene, called Grainyhead-like 3 (GRHL3), which was mutated only in the affected family members. The same gene was found to be altered in seven additional families with VWS where no IRF6 mutations had been found previously.

In order to investigate the role of GRHL3 in oral abnormalities further, six laboratories collaborated in the study of human mutations of the gene in zebrafish and mouse models. They found that mouse embryos lacking GRHL3 cannot form a proper palate and are born with a cleft. GRHL3 encodes a transcription factor that is itself regulated by IRF6. The authors concluded that both genes are required for proper formation of the palate, probably functioning in separate but convergent molecular pathways. The study highlights the importance of studying rare patients to increase our understanding of disease mechanisms.
Tongue-controlled Wheelchair..!!

4 January 2014: The results of a new clinical trial have indicated that the Tongue Drive System, a wireless and wearable assistive technology designed to allow individuals with severe motor impairments to steer their wheelchair using tongue motion, could provide patients with a higher level of independence than conventional assistive technologies can.

The Tongue Drive System is controlled by the position of the user's tongue. Therefore, all participants received a magnetic tongue stud and a headset with sensors that react to the stud's movement, which allowed the participants to use their tongue as a joystick to drive the wheelchair.

The researchers observed that on average the performance of 11 subjects with tetraplegia using the Tongue Drive System was three times faster than their performance with the sip-and-puff system, but with the same level of accuracy, even though more than half of the patients had years of daily experience with sip-and-puff technology.
FDI Prepares For 2014 World Oral Health Day..!!

1 January 2014: The FDI World Dental Federation has announced that it is currently gearing up for the celebration of the 2014 World Oral Health Day, which will take place on the 20 March. The campaign is aimed at the promotion of public oral health on a global scale.

Under the theme “Celebrating Healthy Smiles”, FDI member dental associations, schools, companies and other groups worldwide will be celebrating the day with events organised based on this message.

“Over 90 per cent of the world’s population will suffer some form of dental disease in their lifetime, although many of these can easily be treated or prevented with a good oral-care routine,” said FDI President Dr Tin Chun Wong. “There are more than two million dental professionals around the world, and in 2014, we hope that they will join together with us and our partners to make World Oral Health Day a worldwide success.”

For the 2014 campaign, the FDI presented a revamped World Oral Health Day logo, which symbolises a happy and healthy smile.
Need For Intensive Periodontal Treatment In Diabetics..!!

28 Decemeber 2013: Periodontal disease has been associated with a number of systemic diseases, and there has been evidence that periodontal therapy may improve glycemic control in diabetics. A recently published study, however, has suggested that patients with diabetes may require more intensive periodontal treatment.

In the study, 514 participants aged 35 and over with both type 2 diabetes and moderate to advanced chronic periodontitis were equally separated into a treatment group and a control group. The first group received scaling and root planing plus chlorhexidine oral rinse at the start of the study and periodontal therapy at three and six months; the second group received no treatment for six months.

Overall, the study showed that nonsurgical periodontal therapy did not improve glycemic control in patients with diabetes and periodontitis. At six months, the researchers reported no significant difference between groups with regard to changes of their glycated hemoglobin levels.

"It is important to note that the nonsurgical periodontal therapy employed in this study did not eradicate periodontal disease, which may be why researchers did not see an effect on glycemic control," said Dr. Stuart J. Froum, a professor at the New York University Dental Center. "Every patient requires an individualized treatment plan, which may include either nonsurgical periodontal care or more advanced treatment," he added.
New Genetic Risk Test For Periodontal Disease Introduced..!!

11 Decemeber 2013: Interleukin Genetics, a U.S. company that develops and markets a line of genetic tests, has announced the launch of PerioPredict, the company's next-generation version of its PST test, a genetic test for periodontal disease susceptibility. The company hopes that the new product will help dental professionals identify individuals with a higher risk of periodontal disease.

According to Interleukin Genetics, PerioPredict can predict a patient's susceptibility to severe periodontal disease by measuring variations in genes for interleukin-1, a key mediator of inflammation. The test's improved sample-collection device uses a simple cheek swab. Moreover, the new test utilizes an expansion of previous genetic markers that now cover all major ethnic groups, including Hispanic, African-American and Asian, in addition to Caucasian.

The test can be performed chairside by a dental professional during a routine visit in less than a minute. The samples are then sent to the Interleukin Genetics laboratory for analysis. The test results are returned to the dentist in about two weeks, according to the company.

The test will become available in January 2014. It is sold solely through Interleukin Genetics. The PST test, which was the first genetic test to identify an individual's risk of developing periodontal disease when it was introduced in 1997, is no longer available, the company stated.
New Candy Eats 'Bad' Bacteria In The Mouth, Benefitting Teeth..!!

6 Decemeber 2013: To promote better oral health, a team from the Berlin-based firm Organobalance GmbH, Germany, created a new candy, which they claim reduced levels of 'bad' bacteria in study subjects' mouths. The team, led by Christine Lang, believe that by binding with M. streptococci, the L. paracasei bacteria prevent this bad bacteria from reattaching to the teeth, causing it to get washed away by saliva.

In a pilot trial involving 60 subjects, Lang and her team tested whether their sugar-free candy, which contained heat-killed samples of L. paracasei DSMZ16671, reduced levels of bad oral bacteria. One-third of the subjects ate candies with 1 mg of L. paracasei, while another third ate candies with twice this amount (2 mg). The final third served as a control group and ate candies that were similar in taste but that contained no bacteria.

Results showed that nearly 75% of the participants who ate candies with the good bacteria had "significantly lower" levels of Mutans streptococci in their saliva than before, compared with the control group.

"We think it remarkable that this effect was observed after exposure to only five pieces of candy containing 1 or 2 mg of dead L. paracasei DSMZ16671 consumed in 1.5 days." the researchers added.
CDC Includes Periodontal Disease In Annual Health Report..!!

4 Decemeber 2013: The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention has released its second report on health disparities and inequalities across a wide range of diseases and in health care access in the U.S. For the first time, the document includes statistics on the prevalence of periodontitis in U.S. adults.

According to the report, more than 47 percent of adults aged 30 and over (approximately 65 million adults) had periodontitis during 2009–2010. While an estimated 8.7 percent had mild periodontitis, the prevalence of moderate periodontitis was 30 percent. Severe periodontitis was estimated to occur in 8.5 percent.

The purpose of the report was to discuss and raise awareness of the differences in the characteristics of people with periodontal disease and to prompt action to reduce these disparities, the CDC stated. Data for the report was obtained from the 2009–2010 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, a program of studies designed to assess the health and nutritional status of adults and children in the U.S. The survey examines a nationally representative sample of about 5,000 people each year.

The report, titled "CDC Health Disparities and Inequalities Report — United States, 2013," was published as a supplement to the November issue of CDC's Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report and can be accessed on the organization's website.
Drug Oxantel Offers Protection From Periodontitis & Related Chronic Diseases..!!

1 Decemeber 2013: A drug currently used to treat intestinal worms could protect people from periodontitis. Investigators showed in an animal model of periodontitis that the drug Oxantel inhibits this growth by interfering with an enzyme that bacteria require for biofilm formation, says corresponding author Eric Reynolds, of the University of Melbourne, Australia. It does so in a dose-dependent manner, indicating efficacy.

The researchers began their search for a therapy for periodontitis by studying the symbioses of the periodontal pathogens, using genomics, proteomics, and metabolomics, in animal models of periodontitis. Periodontal biofilm depended for growth on the availability of iron and heme (an iron-containing molecule related to hemoglobin), and that restricting these reduced levels of the enzyme, fumarate reductase.

Oxantel was known to inhibit fumarate reductase in some bacteria, they then successfully tested its ability to inhibit fumarate reductase activity in Porphyromonas gingivalis, one of the major bacterial components of periodontitis biofilms. Fumarate reductase is absent from humans, making it an ideal drug target.

They also showed that Oxantel disrupted the growth of polymicrobial biofilms containing P. gingivalis, Tannerella forsythia, and Treponema denticola, a typical composition of periodontal biofilms, despite the fact that the latter alone is unaffected by Oxantel. The researchers found that treatment with Oxantel downregulated six P. gingivalis gene products, and upregulated 22 gene products, all of which are part of a regulon (a genetic unit) that controls availability of heme.
3DISC To Launch New Dental Radiography System..!!

26 November 2013: 3DISC has announced that it is launching the next generation of its FireCR Dental Reader. The new FireCR Dental Reader, which is about the size of a shoebox and can thus be integrated into the dental practice very easily, has a number of new features and capabilities that facilitate workflow and optimize chairside time with patients.

According to 3DISC, the reader allows for faster diagnosis and streamlined patient care. The device is equipped with the company's new QuantorTab software, which can be downloaded for use on tablet computers running Android and iOS operating systems, and provides dentists with immediate access to patients' dental images, allowing chairside interactive review with patients about possible treatment options.

3DISC will also introduce its new FireID RFID Reader, which can be connected via USB cable to the FireCR Dental workstation, providing quick and accurate registration of data relevant to each patient, the company stated.

The system will be launched at the Scientific Assembly and Annual Meeting of the Radiological Society of North America, which will be held Dec. 1–6 in Chicago. It will be available worldwide in the first quarter of 2014.
New Biomarker (S100A7) For Oral Cancer Found..!!

23 Novemeber 2013: In collaboration with a team of international researchers, scientists at the University of Toronto have identified a protein that could help predict whether a patient is at risk of developing oral cancer.

Conventionally, biomarkers are identified using a cell's DNA. The current study, however, focuses on specific cellular proteins. According to the researchers, the S100A7 protein could be a predictive biomarker for premalignant oral lesions, which can lead to cancer.

Currently, the team is exploring how protein markers can help diagnosis and prognosis of other epithelial cancers. For instance, they have used their approach to identify biomarkers for types of breast and thyroid cancer.

The study, titled "S100A7 Overexpression is a Predictive Marker for High Risk of Malignant Transformation in Oral Dysplasia," was published online on Oct. 8 in the International Journal of Cancer ahead of print.
Dentists Prone To Visual Illusion..!!

19 Novemeber 2013: Objects in a mirror appearing to be farther away than they are is a common illusion encountered by car drivers around the world every day. Misleading visual perception of an object could also be the reason that dentists sometimes drill larger cavities than necessary to fill a tooth or prepare a root canal, a team of psychologists and dental researchers from Australia and New Zealand has suggested.

In clinical field tests involving eight practising endodontic specialists from New Zealand and conducted in 2002 and 2006, the researchers found that dental professionals tend to fall trap to the Delboeuf illusion, which makes enclosed areas appear smaller than they actually are when seen in a larger context. In their case, a cavity drilled into a tooth appeared to be smaller when the surrounding tissue was in range of the parameters of the illusion, leading to more healthy tissue being removed at the expense of patients.

The researchers said in the report that it remains unknown whether dentists are aware of this when drilling but recommended that their findings be incorporated into the early stages of clinical training to decrease the risk of cracking or perforating the root end due to having removed too much healthy tissue. It should also be extended to other fields of health-care treatment that could be affected by visual illusions, they added.

Named after its creator, Joseph Remi Leopold Delboeuf, a Belgian scientist, the illusion was first documented in 1865. It has been reported to be used by restaurants to trick customers regarding the size of their dishes by using smaller plates, among other things.
New Hyaluronic Matrix Accelerates Soft-tissue Healing..!!

11 Novemeber 2013: According to imperiOs (German specialist in the field of bone augmentation ), Hyaloss matrix, a hyaluronic matrix, promotes and accelerates the healing process to a significant degree.

Hyaloss matrix is a bioactive and resorbable matrix composed of hyaluronic acid fibres and is produced through esterification of the hyaluronic acid molecule with benzyl alcohol. Once the fibres of the matrix come into contact with liquid, the matrix gelatinises and can easily be inserted into the respective bone defects, where it releases hyaluronic acid gradually.

Through activation of angiogenesis and mesenchymal stem cells, the matrix promotes regeneration processes during the first ten days after surgery in particular and thus contributes to faster healing. According to the company, Hyaloss matrix is recommended for use in intraosseous and periodontal defects.

The best results can be achieved when the matrix is mixed with autologous bone grafts, imperiOs stated. An advantage of the matrix is that it can be stored at room temperature and can thus be used immediately to fill defects. In smaller periodontal defects, it can even be used unmixed.
Oral Bacteria Create A 'Fingerprint' In Our Mouth..!!

9 Novemeber 2013: The bacteria in the human mouth, particularly those nestled under the gums are as powerful as a fingerprint at identifying a person's ethnicity, new research shows. Scientists identified a total of almost 400 different species of microbes in the mouths of 100 study participants belonging to four ethnic affiliations: non-Hispanic blacks, whites, Chinese and Latinos.

“The most important point of this paper is discovering that ethnicity-specific oral microbial communities may predispose individuals to future disease,” says author Purnima Kumar, associate professor of periodontology at The Ohio State University and senior author of the study.

The power of bacteria in the body remains misunderstood to some extent. Though many people are inclined to blame disease susceptibility on lifestyle and behavior, this work suggests that humans can be predisposed to certain disease risks solely because of the microbes that set up shop in their mouths.
Rapid Oral HIV Tests In Dental Practices..!!

7 Novemeber 2013: A group of researchers from Sydney are investigating whether dental practices and pharmacies could help stop the further spread of the virus by diagnosing more people who are infected and not aware of it through rapid oral HIV testing.

Rapid HIV tests have been available to medical practitioners in Australia since late 2012, but the country has been slow to implement them. The OraQuick ADVANCE Rapid HIV-1/2 Antibody Test developed by US company OraSure Technologies and used in the trial has not yet received approval from the Australian Therapeutic Goods Administration.

It has been available to dental practitioners in the USA since early last year, when it was approved by the Food and Drug Administration. The latest studies suggest that rapid HIV testing in dental practices could increase testing frequency among regular testers, as well as testing rates.
First Whitening System Receives Eco-seal..!!

5 Novemeber 2013: The Eco-Dentistry Association, an international association of dental professionals aimed at the promotion of earth-friendly dentistry, has named Sinsational Smile, an in-office tooth-whitening system, the first eco-friendly whitening product in the world.

According to the association, the seal recognizes environmentally sound products and services that meet specific criteria, such as waste reduction in manufacturing and distribution processes. Sinsational Smile's 20-minute system features a patented silicone mouth tray that is recyclable and preloaded with gel so that there is no need for disposable syringes.

In contrast to tooth-whitening systems that cause high levels of discomfort and sensitivity owing to their ingredients, Sinsational Smile avoids chemical compounds such as bisphenol A, titanium dioxide, and other possible harmful substances. Its proprietary gel contains nontoxic carbamide peroxide and a natural desensitizer. This is the first time such a product has received the organization's Accepted Seal.
Three African Countries To Phase Down Dental Amalgam Use..!!

1 Novemeber 2013: East Africa Dental Amalgam Phase-down Project has been successfully implemented in Kenya, Uganda and Tanzania. Among other objectives, the project will investigate supply and trade patterns, and encourage switching to alternatives to dental amalgam in the three countries.

Under the co-ordination of UNEP Chemicals, the centre for all United Nations Environment Programme activities concerning chemicals, and the World Health Organization’s Global Oral Health Programme, the ministries of Environment and Health in Kenya, Tanzania and Uganda will be collaborating with the FDI World Dental Federation, International Dental Manufacturers and their respective national dental associations to explore essential conditions for a phase-down in the use of dental amalgam.

Amalgam, which contains up to 50 per cent mercury, remains one of the most widely used restorative materials worldwide, although scientists have expressed concerns about its possible adverse health effects, especially among younger patients.
Researchers Regenerate A Fully Functional Bioengineered Salivary Gland..!!

19 October 2013: The research group led by Professor Takashi Tsuji of Tokyo University of Science and Organ Technologies Inc. has provided a proof-of-concept for bioengineered mature organ replacement as a regenerative therapy. Current advances in regenerative therapies have been influenced by the study of embryonic development, stem cell biology, and tissue engineering technologies. The ultimate goal of regenerative therapy is to develop fully functional bioengineered tissues that can replace lost or damaged organs following disease, injury or aging.

Dr. Tsuji's research group (M. Ogawa et al.) reports the fully functional regeneration of a salivary gland that reproduces the morphogenesis induced by reciprocal epithelial and mesenchymal interactions through the orthotopic transplantation of a bioengineered salivary gland germ as a regenerative organ replacement therapy. The bioengineered germ developed into a mature gland through acinar formations with the myoepithelium and innervation. The bioengineered submandibular gland produced saliva in response to the administration of pilocarpine and gustatory stimulation by citrate, protected against oral bacterial infection and restored normal swallowing in a salivary gland defect mouse model. Thus, this study provides a proof-of-concept for bioengineered salivary gland regeneration as a potential treatment for xerostomia.

They demonstrated that regeneration of fully functional salivary glands through the orthotopic transplantation of a bioengineered salivary gland germ in adult mice. The bioengineered submandibular gland, which was transplanted using an inter-epithelial tissue-connecting plastic method, produced saliva in response to the administration of gustatory stimulation by citrate, protected against oral bacterial infection and restored swallowing in a mouse model of a salivary gland defect. Thus, this study provides a proof-of-concept for bioengineered salivary gland regeneration as a potential treatment of xerostomia. Further studies on the identification of stem cells as a source for the reconstitution of bioengineered salivary gland germs are warranted.
High-dose Statin Implicated In Reducing Gum Inflammation..!!

15 October 2013: A new study offers more evidence of a link between oral and heart health. It found that high-dose statins can reduce gum inflammation in heart disease patients in as little as 4 weeks. The researchers report their findings in the latest online issue of the Journal of the American College of Cardiology. These findings show further evidence of a link between oral and heart health, namely that periodontal disease is closely associated with atherosclerosis, and treatments that improve one will also improve the other condition.

For their study (double-blind), the researchers recruited 83 adult patients with heart disease or a high risk for heart disease attending several medical centers and randomly assigned them either to take a daily dose of 80 mg of atorvastatin or a 10 mg dose of the drug for 12 weeks. The final analysis included 59 patients, and it showed that the high-dose group experienced a significant reduction in gum inflammation at the 4-week scan.

"A more modern perspective paints statins as cardiovascular risk-reducing medications with multiple possible mechanisms of action," and this new study "has tremendous potential implications for our philosophy toward statin allocation in primary prevention and future testing of new anti-atherosclerotic drugs." says Dr. Michael Blaha, of the Johns Hopkins Ciccarone Center for the Prevention of Heart Disease.
Poor Oral Health Affects Olympic Athletes' Performance..!!

10 October 2013: The training regimen for any Olympic athlete is intense, but getting oral health into shape is usually not part of the routine. However, new research examining the impact of 2012 Olympic athletes' oral health may now make the toothbrush as important as athletic shoes. The researchers hypothesize that links between oral health, wellbeing and performance may be due to pain from oral disease, as well as inflammation and a decreased self-confidence.

The study, led by Professor Ian Needleman of the University College London Eastman Dental Institute, was published in the British Journal of Sports Medicine. Researchers found that 55% of the athletes had dental caries, which is tooth decay. Of this group, 41% of them had tooth decay into the dentine, which means it is reversible. However, more than 75% of the participants had gingivitis, which is an early stage of gum disease, and 15% had signs of periodontis, which is an irreversible gum infection.

"Oral health is important for wellbeing and successful elite sporting performance. It is amazing that many professional athletes - people who dedicate a huge amount of time and energy to honing their physical abilities - do not have sufficient support for their oral health needs, even though this negatively impacts on their training and performance. These conditions are preventable through regular dental care and general maintenance of the oral environment." says Prof. Needleman
Six-Second Toothbrush..!!

2 October 2013: A team of dentists has created a toothbrush they say can clean teeth thoroughly in less than six seconds. The Blizzident brush contains 400 soft, tapered bristles as well as slits for dental floss designed to fit an individual's teeth.

The unusual brush has 400 bristles set at a 45 degree angle to clean below the gum line - and every tooth surface - when a user grinds their teeth and bites on the device in quick succession. The handle of the brush is a floss dispenser and there are small slots so floss so that the device cleans in-between teeth too.

To clean teeth throughly, a user must bite and release the device quickly 10 to 15 times, which creates a 'vibrating, jiggling upwards, downwards and slightly circling movements'. It also has a little brush in the centre to clean a user's tongue. Its makers say it eliminates brushing errors that people typically make, but experts say more research is needed.
New Nanotube Surface Promises Dental Implants That Heal Faster and Fight Infection..!!

29 September 2013: The image shows a bone cell anchoring itself to a surface of titanium dioxide nanotubes. Because osteoblasts readily adhere to this novel surface, dental implants coated with TiO2 nanotubes could significantly improve healing following dental implant surgery.

Shokuhfar, an assistant professor of mechanical engineering is now working with Cortino Sukotjo, a clinical assistant professor at the University of Illinois at Chicago (UIC) College of Dentistry on a dental implant with a surface made from TiO2 nanotubes, but she has been making and testing them for several years. "We have done toxicity tests on the nanotubes, and not only did they not kill cells, they encouraged growth," she said. She has already demonstrated that bone cells grow more vigorously and adhere better to titanium coated with TiO2 nanotubes than to conventional titanium surfaces. That could keep more dental implants in place.

The nanotubes can also be a drug delivery system. Shokuhfar's team, in collaboration with Alexander Yarin, a professor in UIC's Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, loaded TiO2 nanotubes with the anti-inflammatory drug sodium naproxen and demonstrated that it could be released gradually after implant surgery. That assures that the medicine gets where it's needed, and it reduces the chances of unpleasant side effects that arise when a drug is injected or taken orally.

To fight infection, the TiO2 nanotubes can also be laced with silver nanoparticles. "Silver has antimicrobial properties, and we are capable of obtaining a dose that can kill microbes but would not hurt healthy cells and tissues," she said. In particular, it can help prevent biofilms, vast colonies of bacteria that can cover implants and be very difficult to eradicate. A nanotextured implant surface embedded with silver nanoparticles could prevent infection for the life of the implant.
New Biomaterial Research To Benefit Periodontitis Patients..!!

28 September 2013: Researchers at the Indiana University School of Dentistry are currently working on new biomaterials that will help regenerate tissue destroyed by periodontitis. Within the next five years, they hope to introduce these materials into clinical practice to help patients retain their teeth and to avoid dental implants or other restorative treatment.

In order to generate different kinds of tissue, the researchers will be coupling bioactive molecules with laboratory-made nanofibers to produce a multilayer, paperlike membrane that can be placed into tissue damaged by periodontitis. The membrane will degrade over time, releasing different kinds of molecules to promote the formation of hard and soft tissue in a patient's mouth.

According to a study published about a year ago by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 1 in 2 U.S. adults over 30 have some form of periodontal disease. An estimated 65 million U.S. adults (47 percent) have mild, moderate or severe periodontitis. In adults 65 and older, prevalence rates increase to 70 percent.
Role Of Dental Therapists In Child Protection..!!

26 September 2013: A new study conducted by researchers in New Zealand has highlighted that dental workers may hold a key role in reporting child maltreatment. As the majority of injuries occur in the head and neck area, therapists, who are the most common type of health professional to see children up to the age of 14 in New Zealand, are in the best position to report physical abuse.

According to Dhara Tilvawala, the final-year Bachelor of Dentistry student at the university who led the study, the therapists primarily reported bruises and physical signs of abuse to the head and neck area, including cigarette burns, and children who seemed overly fearful when the clinician tried to examine their mouths. Tilvawala said that 50 to 70 per cent of injuries occurred in the head and neck area.

The study, which was conducted at the University of Otago, involved 320 registered dental therapists from New Zealand, who completed a questionnaire in which they were asked how frequently they had suspected and reported child maltreatment over the past year.

The researchers found that 55 had each suspected up to 10 cases of physical abuse, while 87 had suspected up to 10 cases of child neglect. Moreover, 101 participants had suspected up 10 cases of dental neglect.
New Study Supports Efficacy Of Desensitising Toothpaste..!!

24 September 2013: A study conducted by dental researchers in Taiwan has provided new evidence that toothpaste containing the amino acid arginine and calcium carbonate can contribute to a significant reduction in dentine hypersensitivity. In the study, almost 98 per cent of the participants reported reduced hypersensitivity after having used the toothpaste for eight weeks.

Comparative dental examinations at baseline, and after four weeks and eight weeks of product use found that there were no adverse effects on the oral soft and hard tissue. Forty-two participants (97.7 per cent) reported significantly reduced hypersensitivity.

According to the researchers, the findings suggest that the arginine–calcium carbonate combination blocks the pathway to pain by forming a protective layer on the dentine surface, thereby occluding and sealing the dentine tubules.

However, long-term studies with representative control groups are needed to verify the suitability of desensitizing toothpaste for lasting reduction of hypersensitivity.
Tooth Sensor For Health Monitoring..!!

22 September 2013: Whether eating, drinking, talking, coughing, breathing or smoking, our mouths are always in use. Because the mouth is an opening that can yield health information for our body, a team from National Taiwan University created a sensor that embeds within a single tooth.

The researchers say that the tooth sensor was 93.8% accurate in recognizing oral activity when it was using a "person-dependent classifier," which is the profile created for each specific person. Using an accelerometer to monitor different activities of the mouth, the team used tiny wires within the sensor to carry data to a computer, though they say that future models of the sensor will use Bluetooth for wireless reporting.

Motivation for creating the device, say the researchers, was based on the idea that most oral activities "produce a unique teeth motion." They note that since the sensor is able to measure jaw movement, it can build "classifiers" that categorize different activities of the mouth. In order to test the accuracy of the sensor, the team had eight volunteers wear the sensor while performing different activities, such as coughing, chewing gum and talking, while the computer analyzed the data and built a personal profile for their oral activities.

The team says the information collected by the sensor could be very helpful to dentists, doctors and other scientists, since the device can provide information on teeth grinding, eating or drinking levels, and it could even measure stress levels.
Dental Cavities Linked To Lower Risk Of Head & Neck Cancer..!!

20 September 2013: According to a surprising new study, people who have more dental cavities are at lower risk of being diagnosed with head and neck cancer, compared with patients who have few or no cavities. Researchers from the University at Buffalo, NY, say that the according to previous studies, bacteria that causes tooth decay is linked to an immune response, which may be protective against cancer.

Caries is a dental plaque-related disease. Lactic acid bacteria cause demineralization (caries) only when they are in dental plaque in immediate contact with the tooth surface. The presence of these otherwise beneficial bacteria in saliva or on mucosal surfaces may protect the host against chronic inflammatory diseases and HNSCC.

"We could think of dental caries as a form of 'collateral damage' and develop strategies to reduce its risk while preserving the beneficial effects of the lactic acid bacteria" says study author. The researchers say that a potential strategy to reduce the risk of dental cavities while still preserving the lactic acid bacteria could be to implement mechanical plaque control, preservation of saliva and use of fluoride, as well as controlling diet and other risk factors.
Nanodiamond-Encrusted Teeth the Future of Dental Implants..!!

18 September 2013: UCLA researchers have discovered that diamonds on a much, much smaller scale than those used in jewelry could be used to promote bone growth and the durability of dental implants. Scientists from the UCLA School of Dentistry, the UCLA Department of Bioengineering and Northwestern University, along with collaborators at the NanoCarbon Research Institute in Japan, may have found a way to use them to improve bone growth and combat osteonecrosis, a potentially debilitating disease in which bones break down due to reduced blood flow.

The study found that nanodiamonds, which are invisible to the human eye, bind rapidly to both bone morphogenetic protein and fibroblast growth factor, demonstrating that the proteins (that promote bone growth) can be simultaneously delivered using one vehicle. The unique surface of the diamonds allows the proteins to be delivered more slowly, which may allow the affected area to be treated for a longer period of time.

"This discovery serves as a foundation for the future of nanotechnology in dentistry, orthopedics and other domains in medicine," said Dr. No-Hee Park, dean of the School of Dentistry. "Dr. Ho and his team have demonstrated the enormous potential of the nanodiamonds toward improving patient care. He is a pioneer in his field."
Breath Analysis To Diagnose Lung Cancer..!!

17 September 2013: New research has suggested that samples of exhaled breath could be a cost-effective and cheap alternative for diagnosing lung cancer compared with conventional methods. In the most extensive study to date, the researchers were able to diagnose the majority of cases of lung cancer correctly using a special screening technology.

Assessing the samples with an electronic nose, a technology that detects different profiles of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in breath samples, 128 non-smokers and 114 smokers were correctly diagnosed as having lung cancer. Although the researchers have not yet clearly identified which VOCs are linked to different diseases, this study suggests that this method can be used to differentiate between lung cancer, other lung diseases and healthy people.

According to the European Lung Foundation, lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer mortality in Europe and worldwide. It accounts for an estimated 20 per cent of all cancer deaths. The findings were presented at the European Respiratory Society’s annual congress that was held from 7 to 11 September in Barcelona.
Attractive Target For New Therapeutics Against Candidiasis..!!

7 September 2013: Candida albicans is a species of yeast that causes a number of infections in the human body. According to the researchers, Candida infections are the third-most commonly acquired blood-borne infections, resulting in an estimated 50,000 deaths annually. In addition to causing oral thrush and sore mouth, these micro-organisms can lead to serious illness or death. New research that provides a better understanding of how mucosal surfaces in the mouth respond to C. albicans to prevent tissue damage was presented recently.

The study was conducted by researchers at King’s College London. In laboratory tests, they exposed oral epithelial cells, a mucosal layer of cells that line the mouth, providing a barrier against microbes, to C. albicans in vitro and looked at particular gene expressions 6 and 24 hours after infection. The phosphoinositide 3-kinase pathway, a molecular signalling pathway, was activated about 5 minutes after the specimen had come into contact with C. albicans, preventing the fungus from invading. The researchers suggested that the pathway is involved in priming epithelial cells to prevent future damage.

The researchers believe that the pathway may be an attractive target for new therapeutics. By boosting its activity, it may be possible to reduce tissue damage, suggested Dr David Moyes, research associate at the college.
Oral Infections Lead To More Hospitalizations..!!

5 September 2013: A new study has suggested that the number of hospitalizations due to preventable oral infections may be on the rise. Reviewing national patient data, the researchers found that the number of people hospitalized for dental abscesses, an infection surrounding the root of a tooth and a common consequence of untreated tooth decay, has increased significantly over the last decade.

In the study, researchers from Tufts University School of Dental Medicine and the Harvard School of Dental Medicine analyzed the data of patients hospitalized between 2000 and 2008 retrospectively. They found that overall almost 61,500 hospitalizations were primarily attributed to periapical abscesses in the U.S. over the nine-year period.

According to the scientists, 89 percent of all the hospitalizations occurred on an emergency basis. The mean length of stay was 2.96 days. The average age of patients admitted for reasons related to a dental abscess was 37. More than 18 percent of the patients had no insurance. In addition, the numbers revealed that 66 patients died in hospitals because of such oral infections.
Poor Oral Health Linked To Cancer-Causing Oral HPV Infection..!!

1 September 2013: Infection with oral human papillomavirus (HPV) - a main cause of throat cancer - could be linked to poor oral health, including gum disease, according to a study published in the journal Cancer Prevention Research.

The findings showed that the participants who reported bad oral health had a 56% higher risk of developing oral HPV infection compared with those who had good oral health.

"Although more research is needed to confirm the causal relationship between oral health and oral HPV infection, people may want to maintain good oral health for a variety of health benefits. Oral hygiene is fundamental for oral health, so good oral hygiene practices should become a personal habit" says Thanh Cong Bui, postdoctoral research fellow in the School of Public Health at the University of Texas Health Sciences Center.
Expectant Mothers' Periodontal Health Vital to Health of Her Baby..!!

30 August 2013: New clinical recommendations from the American Academy of Periodontology (AAP) and the Eurpean Federation of Periodontology (EFP) urge pregnant women to maintain periodontal health as well.

Several research studies have suggested that women with periodontal disease may be more likely to deliver babies prematurely or with low-birth weight than mothers with healthy gums. The clinical recommendations released by the AAP and the EFP state that non-surgical periodontal therapy is safe for pregnant women, and can result in improved periodontal health.

"It is important for expectant mothers to monitor their periodontal health and to have a conversation with their periodontist or dentist about the most appropriate care. By maintaining your periodontal health, you are not only supporting your overall health, but also helping to ensure a safe pregnancy and a healthy baby," says Dr. Newhouse, DDS, MS, President of the AAP and a practicing periodontist in Independence, Missouri.
Tea May Thwart Dental Issues..!!

27 August 2013: A new study indicates that drinking tea may aid in preventing gum disease and prohibit cavities from developing. The information showed that three cups of tea each day battled bacteria, which led to a lower risk for gum disease and tooth decay.

Black tea, specifically, possesses ingredients that fight certain bacteria like Lactobacillus and Streptococcus mutans, which are bacteria that cause gum disease. Three cups has become the recommended amount because the best results in fighting gum disease were shown by people consuming three to four cups of tea each day. The tea succeeds because it limits the amount of plaque acids released when eating.
Lactobacillus reuteri Prodentis As An Adjunct To Scaling & Root Planing..!!

19 August 2013: A double-blind, placebo-controlled study of chronic periodontitis patients showed that treatment with Lactobacillus reuteri Prodentis as an adjunct to standard treatment significantly improved efficacy by 53 per cent.

By the end of the 12 week long study 53 per cent fewer sites (surfaces on a teeth) in patients with deep dental pockets and supplemented by Lactobacillus reuteri Prodentis was in need for surgery, compared to the placebo group (p < 0.019). A site was considered as in need for surgery if the pocket depth was ≥6 mm or ≥5 mm and bleeding.

"This study is important because it shows that less patients will be in need for surgery and thus both suffering and money for these periodontitis patients could be saved with BioGaia ProDentis. The results will also help us further penetrate dental offices around the world and thereby contribute to the growth of our oral health business", says Peter Rothschild, President, BioGaia.
Colorectal Cancer & Oral Microbial Flora..!!

17 August 2013: Two new studies published this week suggest that a type of gut bacteria (Fusobacterium) found in the mouth may trigger colorectal cancer by influencing the immune response and switching on cancer genes. The two new studies, published in the August 14th online issue of the journalCell Host & Microbe, focus on a genus of bacteria called Fusobacteria, and the species F. nucleatum in particular.

Colorectal cancer is the second leading cause of death from cancer among Americans. Researchers have found Fusobacteria from the mouth are also abundant in tissues from colorectal cancer patients. Fusobacteria may provide not only a new way to group or describe colon cancers but also, more importantly, a new perspective on how to target pathways to halt tumor growth and spread.

Fusobacteria use a molecule that lives on the surface of the bacterial cell to stick to and then invade human colorectal cancer cells. The molecule, called Fusobacterium adhesin A (FadA), switches on genes that spur cancer growth, triggers inflammation in the human cancer cells, and spurs tumor formation. The team also found that tissue from healthy individuals had much lower levels of FadA than tissue from patients with benign and cancerous colorectal tumors.
Oral Cancer Statistics..!!

15 August 2013: Oral cancer has no mercy, and approximately 40,000 patients are diagnosed with the disease every year in the US alone. In a 5 year time-lapse, only about 50% of these people will survive the horrible disease. Statistically, every single hour of the day 1 person loses the fight and dies because of oral cancer. Information, knowledge and awareness about the disease are extremely important, because when oral cancer is diagnosed in the very early stages the patient can revert back to good health.

Oral cancer in the very first stages can go unnoticed. The patient does not see or feel any physical changes, no pain is present so he assumes everything is alright. However, dental professionals can immediately notice even the smallest changes in the mouth tissue structure, which might be indicative of oral cancer. Yet another critical rule is that if you notice any tiny ulceration, sore or tissue change within the mouth which does not heal within 14 days, you should immediately have an oral cancer check.

Therefore, everybody should perform an oral cancer check at least once per year. At times, patients developing a canker sore believe there is nothing to worry about, but that tiny white patch could also be a life threatening sign that oral cancer tries to invade your system. At this point, when the cancer is yet in its incipient phase, cure is possible.
Urine Used To Create Teeth - Stem Cell Success..!!

11 August 2013: Stem cell research is opening up the way for new teeth "grown" from an unlikely source - human urine. Chinese researchers describe how stem cells derived from urine could be used to generate solid organs and tissues, including teeth.

Their study is published this week in the open-access journal Cell Regeneration. The researchers hope the technique might one day help provide new, tailor-made teeth for dental patients. Previous stem cell research has shown how cells can be generated from urine. It is also known that cells discarded with urea can become induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) that can then generate many different cell types, including neurons and heart muscle cells.

iPSCs remain a great source of hope for regenerative medicine. Not only do they avoid the controversial use of embryos, but they also come from a more readily accessible source than even cultured skin and blood. Furthermore, cells generated by this method cannot be rejected by the human immune system, being derived from the host's own cellular material.
A Glass of Milk After Eating Sugary Cereals May Prevent Cavities..!!

08 August 2013: Washing down sugary breakfast cereal with milk after eating reduces plaque acid levels and may prevent damage to tooth enamel that leads to cavities, according to new research at the University of Illinois at Chicago College of Dentistry. Reports have shown that eating carbohydrates four times daily, or in quantities greater than 60 grams per person per day, increases the risk of cavities.

Participants who drank milk after eating sugary cereal showed the highest pH rise, from 5.75 to 6.48 at 30 minutes. Those who drank apple juice remained at pH 5.84 at 30 minutes, while water raised the pH to 6.02. Milk, with a pH ranging from 6.4 to 6.7, is considered to be a functional food that fights cavities because it promotes tooth remineralization and inhibits the growth of plaque.
Gingival Stem Cells May Have Important Medical Applications In Future.!!

07 August 2013: Stem cells found in mouth tissue can not only become other types of cells but can also relieve inflammatory disease, according to a new Ostrow School of Dentistry of USC study in the Journal of Dental Research. The cells featured in the study are gingival mesenchymal stem cells (GMSC), which are found in the gingiva, or gum tissue, within the mouth. GMSC, like other stem cells, have the ability to develop into different types of cells as well as affect the immune system.

This study shows that there are two types of GMSC: those that arise from the mesoderm layer of cells during embryonic development (M-GMSC) and those that come from cranial neural crest cells (N-GMSC). The cranial neural crest cells develop into many important structures of the head and face, and 90 percent of the gingival stem cells were found to be N-GMSC. The study indicates that the stem cells in the gingiva - obtained via a simple biopsy of the gums - may have important medical applications in the future.
A Gap-Toothed Grin & Absent-Mindedness Could Go Hand-In-Hand..!!

02 August 2013: Research suggests that losing our teeth is actually a cause of memory loss. The news is based on recent research examining the link between oral health and memory in older people.They suggest two possible interpretations of this association:1. The lack of natural teeth may lead to degeneration of key sensory receptors in the mouth, which in turn may reduce the sensory input to the part of the brain responsible for episodic memory, or 2. There may be dietary consequences of tooth loss, whereby impaired chewing ability may cause people to choose foods that are easy to chew, which may lead to poor nutrition and reduced cognitive ability.
Alzheimer's Disease Linked To Poor Dental Health..!!

01 August 2013: A study has found that people with poor oral hygiene or gum disease could be at higher risk of developing Alzheimer's compared with those who have healthy teeth.Researchers from the University of Central Lancashire (UCLan) in the UK, discovered the presence of a bacterium called Porphyromonas gingivalis in the brains of patients who had dementia when they were alive.
Study reveals target for drug development for temporomandibular joint disorder (TMJD) - a chronic jaw pain disorder..!!

01 August 2013: Temporomandibular joint disorder (TMJD) is the most common form of oral or facial pain. The chronic disorder can cause severe pain often associated with chewing or biting down, and lacks effective treatments. The researchers focused on TRPV4, an ion channel protein that allows calcium to rapidly enter cells, and its role in inflammation and pain associated with TMJD.The results suggest that TRPV4 and its expression in trigeminal sensory neurons contribute to TMJD pain in mice. Given the lack of effective treatments for this chronic pain disorder, TRPV4 may be an attractive target for developing new therapies.
Soda and Illegal Drugs Cause Similar Damage to Teeth..!!

Acids Erode Enamel Addicted to soda? You may be shocked to learn that drinking large quantities of your favorite carbonated soda could be as damaging to your teeth as methamphetamine and crack cocaine use. The consumption of illegal drugs and abusive intake of soda can cause similar damage to your mouth through the process of tooth erosion, according to a case study published in the March/April 2013 issue of General Dentistry.
Billions Worldwide Suffer from Major Tooth Decay..!!

Billions of people across the globe are suffering from major untreated dental problems, according to a new report led by Professor Wagner Marcenes of Queen Mary, University of London, published in the Journal of Dental Research.
Bacterium That Causes Gum Disease Packs a One-Two Punch to the Jaw..!!

The newly discovered bacterium that causes gum disease delivers a one-two punch by also triggering normally protective proteins in the mouth to actually destroy more bone, a University of Michigan study found.
Early Exposure to Bisphenol A Might Damage the Enamel of Teeth..!!

Are teeth the latest victims of bisphenol A? Yes, according to the conclusions of work carried out by the research team led by Ariane Berdal of the Université Paris-Diderot and Sylvie Babajko, Research Director at Inserm Unit 872 "Centre des Cordeliers." The researchers have shown that the teeth of rats treated with low daily doses of BPA could be damaged by this.Analysis of the damage shows numerous characteristics that are common with a recently identified pathology of tooth enamel that affects roughly 18% of children between the ages of 6 and 8.
New Coating Method Accelerates Bonding With Bone Three Times Faster..!!

Researchers at the International Center for Materials Nanoarchitectonics (MANA) and Tokyo Medical and Dental University have developed a coating method which accelerates bonding with bone by three times. Photographs of tissue preparation during 4 weeks after surgery. In the upper 2 photos, soft tissue (dyed pink) exists between titanium material (black) and bone tissue (dyed brown); however, with the HAp/Col in the lower photos, direct bonding has occurred between the material and the bone.
New Evidence On How Fluoride Fights Tooth Decay..!!

In an advance toward solving a 50-year-old mystery, scientists are reporting new evidence on how the fluoride in drinking water, toothpastes, mouth rinses and other oral-care products prevents tooth decay.





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